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The battle for Gijon After the capture of Bilbao and Santander the only remaining Republican stronghold in the North was Gijon and the surrounding area. The Nationalists, who were led by Generals Antonio Aranda and Jose Solchaga, launched an offensive through the Mountains of Leon and along the coast from the East to capture Gijon. Aranda's forces were unable to break through the mountain passes, which were defended by Asturian troops, until a Navarrese force, under Solchaga's command, captured the village of Infiesto. This out-flanked the defences and the Asturians were forced to retreat. On 21st October Gijon surrendered and the whole northern coast of Spain now passed into Nationalist control. Largo Caballero was removed from the leadership of the U.G.T. (Unión General de Trabajadores [Socialist Trades Union]). The Republican submarine C6 was scuttled at Gijon after suffering damage during a Nationalist air attack. The Republican destroyer Ciscar was sunk at Gijon by Nationalist aircraft. [Map of Spain in October 1937] The Republican Government moved from Valencia to Barcelona.

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Spanish Wars: 15th Century - Origin

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The battle of Tteruel The Republican Army launched an offensive to capture Teruel to pre-empt a Nationalist attack upon Catalonia. Two Republican armies (led by Generals Hernandez Sarabia and Leopoldo Menendez) advanced on Teruel and by nightfall on 15th December they had surrounded the city. The garrison, which was commanded by Colonel Rey d'Harcourt, held out in the southern part of the city until 8th January; casualties and lack of supplies then forced them to surrender. On 29th December General Franco had ordered Generals Jose Varela and Antonio Aranda to mount a counter-attack to relieve the defenders but the appalling winter weather hampered their advance and d'Harcourt had surrendered before they could raise the siege. The Republicans now found that they were in danger of being besieged in Teruel themselves. On 7th February Nationalist cavalry attacked the Republican forces to the North of the city and forced them to retreat and by 17th February Moroccan troops (led by General Juan Yague) had crossed the River Alfambra. Three days later the Nationalists had almost surrounded the city and the Republican armies were forced to retreat along the Valencia road to the south-east. The Nationalists then reoccupied Teruel. The modern Nationalist cruiser Baleares, which was escorting a convoy of merchant ships off the Mediterranean coast near Cartagena, was sunk by torpedoes launched by Republican destroyers.

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The Spanish Civil War Mod

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Spanish Wars: 19th Century - Dissolution

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The battle of the Ebro To relieve pressure on the Madrid defences and to divert Nationalist forces from their offensive towards Valencia, the Republic ordered General Juan Modesto to launch an offensive across the River Ebro. The attack, which was made by the newly formed Republican Army of the Ebro, forced the Nationalists, who were led by General Juan Yague, to retreat. In its initial phase the offensive was very successful, and on some parts of the front the attackers managed to advance up to 25 miles. The attack then began to lose impetus and the Republican forces began to dig in to await the Nationalist counter-attack. Superior use of air power and relentless attacks on the ground gradually forced the Republicans to retreat. This culminated, on 30th October, in a massive Nationalist attack and by 18th November the Republicans had been forced back across the River Ebro. [Map of Spain in July 1938] Dr Negrin announced, in a speech to the League of Nations, that the International Brigades were to be withdrawn from the fighting. The International Brigades were withdrawn from the front-line prior to them being “repatriated”. The Republican submarine C1 was sunk by Nationalist aircraft at Barcelona. The leaders of the P.O.U.M. were put on trial in Barcelona. Two were acquitted but four were imprisoned. The International Brigades paraded through Barcelona before they were disbanded.

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The battle for Saragossa The Republican Army of the East, led by General Sebastian Pozas, advanced into Aragon from Catalonia to capture Saragossa. They pushed back the Nationalist forces (which were commanded by General Miguel Ponte) to the North and South of the River Ebro, but were unable to dislodge them from the area around Saragossa or to capture Huesca (in the North) or Teruel (in the South). By the end of September the offensive had ceased to have any impetus and had come to a halt.

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The battle for Barcelona Having cut the Republic into two the Nationalists now launched an offensive against Catalonia. The attack on the forces defending the Republican front-line was made by six Nationalist armies on a front that stretched from the Pyrenees to South of the River Ebro. It proved too much for the already exhausted Republicans. They retreated towards Barcelona and, once Borjas Blancas was captured on 4th January, the retreat became a rout. Tarragona surrendered on 14th January and by 24th January the Nationalists were within 3 miles of Barcelona. At this point the Government, led by Juan Negrin, fled to Gerona. The Republican troops in Barcelona continued to maintain a token resistance until 26th January, when the city finally surrendered. The Republican destroyer Diez was damaged by the Nationalist cruiser Canarias off the coast near Catalon Bay. The Diez was so badly damaged that she had to be beached to stop her sinking. She was later towed to Gibraltar and remained there, interned, until the end of the war. Manuel Azana resigned from the post of President of the Republic. [Map of Spain in February 1939] The failure of Dr Negrin's Communist Government to sue for peace resulted in a civil-war-within-a-civil-war on the streets of Madrid. The National Defence Council, led by Colonel Casado, triumphed in the struggle for control of the Republic and tried to negotiate peace terms with General Franco. In the meantime Dr Negrin, his Cabinet, and Russian advisers flew out of Madrid to safety.

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The battle of Brunete After the failure of the Nationalist attack upon Guadalajara the Republican troops around Madrid went on to the offensive. General Jose Miaja ordered two Republican Corps (led by Generals Juan Modesto and Enrique Jurado) to advance southwards from the El Escorial — Madrid road towards Brunete. This would then cut off the Nationalist forces besieging Madrid from the West. Their initial thrust captured Brunete and drove a 5 mile salient into the Nationalist front-line. The Nationalist armies, under the command of General Jose Varela, then rallied and mounted a counter-attack that forced the Republicans almost all the way back to their start line. The Council of Aragon was dissolved by the Republican government.

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The battle for Malaga With the arrival in Spain of the Italian “volunteers” the Nationalists now felt able to mount an offensive on the southern provinces of Republican Spain. Three Nationalist columns converged on Malaga; the Army of the South, led by General Gonzalo Quiepo de Llano, advanced from the West; from Granada, to the north-east of the city, came forces under the command of Colonel Antonio Munoz; and moving down from the North were the Italians, led by General Mario Roatta. Although large numbers of Republican troops were available to defend Malaga, they were badly organised and they steadily retreated. By 3rd February the attackers had reached the outskirts of the city and, three days later, when the last defenders fled northward towards Almeria, the Nationalists entered Malaga.

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The Spanish Civil War

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Spanish Wars: 20th Century - Peace

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